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Piracetam

Piracetam

Also known as: Aviligen; Cerebroforte; Cerebrospan; Cetam; Ciclocetam; Dinagen; Encefalux; Encetrop, Euvifor; Gabacet; Gacet; Genegris; Genogris; Ideaxam; Memo-Puren; Neutrofin; Nootron; Nootrop; Nootropil; Nootropyl; Normabrain; Norzatem; Norzetam; Novocetam; Piracebral; Pirroxil; Psycoton; Stamin; Stimicortex; Stimucortex; UCB-6215

Description

Piracetam is a water-soluble Pyrrolidone Derivative Nootropic Smart Drug. It is chemically similar to Pyroglutamate.

Health Benefits of Piracetam

Aging & Life Extension
Piracetam possesses Life Extension potential:
 
-Piracetam prolongs the life of mice and rats under conditions of Hypoxia.

Cardiovascular System
Piracetam counteracts the Hypoxia that occurs as a result of Atherosclerosis.
Piracetam improves Blood Circulation to the Brain (and may thereby alleviate Cerebral Insufficiency). research
Piracetam counteracts Raynaud’s Disease (by alleviating the underlying Hypoxia that is believed to be responsible for Raynaud’s Disease).
Piracetam enhances the after-treatment of Strokes (due to its enhancement of Oxygen utilization in the Brain). research

Detoxification
Piracetam is used to treat Alcoholism (due to its ability to enhance Oxygen utilization in the Brain):
 
-Piracetam counteracts the inefficient utilization of Oxygen associated with Alcohol consumption and Piracetam also impedes damage to the Neurons of the Hippocampus following Alcohol (ethanol) consumption and impedes the exacerbated destruction of hippocampal Neurons during the period immediately following Alcohol withdrawal after prolonged Alcohol consumption. research

Piracetam counteracts the Hypoxia that occurs as a result of Tobacco smoking.

Metabolism
Piracetam improves Athletic Performance at high altitudes (due to Piracetam's ability to prevent Hypoxia).
Piracetam reduces Fatigue. research
Piracetam prevents and accelerates the Brain’s recovery from Hypoxia. research

Nervous System
Piracetam improves Alertness in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons.
Piracetam improves the condition of Alzheimer's Disease patients and Dementia patients: research
 
-Piracetam increases Alertness (by an average of 50%) in Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia patients.
-Piracetam alleviates Depression (by an average of 32%) in Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia patients.
-Piracetam improves Memory (by an average of 45%) in Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia patients.
-Piracetam alleviates the Paranoia that often occurs during the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease. research
-Piracetam alleviates Sleep Disorders in Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia patients.
Piracetam alleviates Anxiety. research
Piracetam (1,200 - 2,400 mg per ay) alleviates the Learning difficulties associated with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).
Piracetam improves Attention Span in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons.
Piracetam regenerates the Central Nervous System.
Piracetam increases the number of Cholinergic Receptors (i.e. Receptors for Acetylcholine) in the brain by up to 40%:
 
-Piracetam stimulates Muscarinic Receptors and increases the sensitivity of Muscarinic Receptors (i.e. it functions as a Muscarinic Receptor Agonist). research
Piracetam facilitates the Interhemispheric Flow of Information between the two hemispheres of the Brain (by stimulating the production of Adenosine Triphosphate in the Cerebral Cortex of the Brain).
Piracetam enhances Creativity (by improving the Interhemispheric flow of Information within the Corpus Callosum of the Brain). research
Piracetam improves Hearing in persons afflicted with (sudden) Deafness (hearing loss) - in some cases it improves hearing by up to 15 dB.
Piracetam has been tested and found to be extremely beneficial in the treatment of Down’s Syndrome (an unpublished clinical trial attests to its ability to cause improvement in motor development, mental development, speech, emotional development, scholastic achievement and EEG in Down’s Syndrome patients). research
Piracetam improves most aspects of Mental Function (including speed and accuracy of reading, Short-Term Memory and Verbal Memory) in Dyslexia patients (by stimulating the production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in the Corpus Callosum of the Brain and by improving the Interhemispheric flow of Information between the two hemispheres of the Brain). research
Piracetam improves most aspects of mental function in Epilepsy patients without interfering with anti-epileptic pharmaceutical drugs: research
 
-Piracetam enhances the ability of some Anti-Epileptic Pharmaceutical Drugs (e.g. Carbamazepine) to protect against Seizures in Epilepsy patients.
Piracetam enhances the activities of the Hippocampus associated with Learning and Piracetam also impedes damage to the Neurons of the Hippocampus following Alcohol (ethanol) consumption and impedes the exacerbated destruction of hippocampal Neurons during the period immediately following Alcohol withdrawal after prolonged Alcohol consumption. research
Piracetam enhances the utilization of Oxygen within the Brain and enhances the Brain's recovery from Hypoxia (oxygen starvation).
Piracetam increases some aspects of human Intelligence. research
Piracetam improves Learning ability in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons (by influencing both the Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex of the Brain). research
Piracetam improves Memory in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons (by increasing the synthesis of the Proteins responsible for Memory by Polyribosomes and by increasing the production of Polyribosomes themselves): research
 
-Piracetam protects against Memory loss from physical injury and chemical poisoning.
-Piracetam improves Short Term Memory (including Spatial Memory research, an aspect of Short Term Memory that involves remembering one’s position in space).
Piracetam stimulates and increases the sensitivity of Muscarinic Receptors (i.e. it functions as a Muscarinic Receptor Agonist); Piracetam also increases the number of Muscarinic Receptors in the Frontal Lobe of the Brain (indicating that Piracetam may stimulate the growth of new Muscarinic Receptors in the Frontal Lobe).
Piracetam is currently recognized as the “treatment of choice” for Myoclonus. research
Piracetam rejuvenates aged and damaged Neurons in the Brain.
Piracetam alleviates the Paranoia that often occurs during the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease. research
Piracetam (4,800 mg per day) is an effective adjuvant treatment (combined with Speech Therapy) for the treatment of Speech Impairment (aphasia). research
Piracetam increases the body’s tolerance to Stress. research
Piracetam alleviates (acute) Tinnitus.
Piracetam (2,400 - 4,800 mg per day) counteracts Vertigo (by alleviating the underlying Hypoxia that is believed to be responsible for Vertigo).

Piracetam Enhances the Function of these Substances

Carbohydrates
Piracetam improves the metabolism of Glucose within the Brain.

Enzymes
Piracetam lowers the production of Acetylcholinesterase to levels regarded as normal for younger subjects.
Piracetam inhibits Thromboxane-A Synthetase (this inhibition is considered beneficial in that by inhibiting Thromboxane-A Synthetase, the production of Thromboxane A2 is decreased (Thromboxane A2 is implicated in abnormal Blood Clotting).

Krebs Cycle Chemicals
Piracetam increases the Brain's turnover of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) within the Cerebral Cortex which is associated with increased Energy production within the Brain: research
 
-Piracetam increases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. research

Phospholipids
Piracetam increases the levels of Phospholipids in the Brain.

Piracetam Counteracts the Toxic Effects of these Substances

Pharmaceutical Drugs
Piracetam counteracts the Memory-impairment caused by Diazepam (Valium). research

Recreational Drugs
Piracetam helps to reverse the Short Term Memory loss associated with Marijuana usage.

These Substances are Synergistic with Piracetam and may Reduce the Effective dosage required for Piracetam

Steroid Hormones
Piracetam requires the presence of Steroid Hormones to be effective and people with low levels of Steroid Hormones or their precursors cannot derive the therapeutic benefits offered by Pyrrolidone Derivatives:
 
-Aldosterone
-Corticosterone
-Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
-Estrogens
-Pregnenolone
-Progesterone
-Testosterone
Conversely, excessive levels of Steroid Hormones impairs the effectiveness of Piracetam.

Pharmaceutical Drugs
Piracetam potentiates the ability of Pentoxifylliine to improve Blood Circulation to the Brain. research

Smart Drugs
Centrophenoxine is synergistic with Piracetam.
Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is synergistic with Piracetam.
Hydergine and Piracetam potentiate one another by up to 500%. research

Vitamins
Choline is highly synergistic with Piracetam - Choline significantly enhances the therapeutic benefits of Piracetam. research
Vitamin B5 is synergistic with Piracetam.

Minor Side-Effects of Piracetam

Piracetam is totally non-toxic. No side-effects have been observed even at extremely high dosages. Piracetam produced none of the side-effects (stimulation or sedation) that usually occur in drugs that act on the Central Nervous System.

Recreational Drugs
Piracetam can potentiate the effects of Amphetamines.

Dosage Recommendations

Therapeutic Dosages
An initial kickstart dose of Piracetam of 4,000 - 8,000 mg is usually used for the first two days of Piracetam therapy. Many persons notice no effect from Piracetam unless they use this initial high “kickstart” dosage.
The maintenance dose of Piracetam is 2,400 - 4,800 mg per day (taken as three divided doses during the day).

Synergism
These dosage recommendations should be reduced if Piracetam is being used at the same time as Hydergine since these two substances are very synergistic when taken together.

The degree of improvement attained by using Piracetam varies from subtle to dramatic - the degree of original impairment appears to influence the subjective benefits derived from Piracetam (persons with the most severe impairment tend to obtain the most benefit).

Bioavailability

Piracetam is rapidly and almost totally (near 100%) absorbed when administered orally.
Peak Blood Plasma levels of Piracetam occur within 1.5 hours of its oral administration.
The Blood Plasma half-life of Piracetam is 5 hours.
Piracetam effectively crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier.
Piracetam does not metabolize within the body to any other substance.
Almost all ingested Piracetam is excreted from the body via the Urine.

Commercial Availability of Piracetam

Piracetam is available from pharmacies in Europe (prescription required) and some international mail order pharmacies in the form of:
 
-400 - 1,200 mg tablets
-liquid Piracetam

Chemical Data

Chemically, Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA).

Chemical Name
2-oxo-pyrrolidone acetamide

Molecular Formula
C6H10N2O2


Related Topics

Pyroglutamate
Pyrrolidone Derivatives


Return Synergism

When two substances interact with one another to produce effects that are greater than the sum total of what their individual actions would be in isolation, (by way of analogy 1 + 1 = 3), both substances are described as being synergistic.



Return Half-Life

The half-life of a substance refers to the time required to eliminate or metabolize half of the total quantity of the substance from the body following its ingestion.

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