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Glutamine

Also known as: Gln

Description

Glutamine is an Amino Acid that is an Amide of Glutamic Acid.

Health Benefits of Glutamine

Cardiovascular System
Glutamine helps to prevent Anemia.

Digestive System
Glutamine (18 grams (18,000 mg) per day for three days prior to the commencement of Chemotherapy) reduces the incidence of Gastrointestinal discomfort and Diarrhea in people undergoing Chemotherapy. research
Glutamine strongly enhances the health of the Digestive System.
Glutamine can significantly improve survival times for a deadly form of Colitis: research
 
-Glutamine improves the condition of Crohn’s Disease patients (primarily by supporting the health/function of the Intestinal Mucosa).
Glutamine is a major source of energy for the Intestines and helps to prevent fluid loss from the Intestines.
Glutamine enhances the growth of the Pancreas.
Glutamine accelerates the healing of Peptic Ulcers (including Gastric Ulcers).
Glutamine alleviates the Diarrhea, Ulcers, abdominal Pain, weight loss and food Allergies associated with Ulcerative Colitis: research
 
-Glutamine lowers Lipopolysaccharides levels in Ulcerative Colitis patients. research
Glutamine is an essential "fuel" for the Villi cells of the Intestinal Wall. research

Immune System
Glutamine improves the function of the Immune System. research
Glutamine (5 - 10 grams per day) helps to prevent Bacterial & Viral Diseases (especially in persons who experience Glutamine depletion as a result of excessive Exercise or Endurance Exercise): research
 
-Glutamine enhances the ability of Neutrophils (cells of the Immune System) to destroy Detrimental Bacteria. research
Glutamine supplementation can minimize the loss of Immune System function that occurs as a side-effect from Burns.
Glutamine helps to minimize the damage caused by Chemotherapy in Cancer patients: research
 
-Glutamine enhances the repair of Intestines damaged by Chemotherapy.
-Glutamine (18 grams (18,000 mg) per day for three days prior to the commencement of Chemotherapy) reduces the incidence of Gastrointestinal discomfort and Diarrhea in people undergoing Chemotherapy.
-Glutamine helps to repair the damage that Chemotherapy causes to the Immune System (when Glutamine is supplemented in chemotherapy subjects the infection rate drops to 3%, compared to 100% without Glutamine).
-When Glutamine is supplemented as an adjunct to Chemotherapy in the treatment of Cancer, tumors decrease in size by 45% - compared to 25% when Glutamine is not supplemented.
-Glutamine increases the survival rate of Chemotherapy patients.
-Glutamine (up to 30 grams per day) alleviates the Pain of and quickly heals open sores in the Mouth (oral mucositis) caused by Chemotherapy.
Glutamine (5 - 10 grams per day) counteracts the suppression of the Immune System that occurs in people who engage in Endurance Exercise. research
Animals that are totally devoid of Glutamine quickly contract Immunosuppressive Diseases and die.
Glutamine stimulates the growth of and serves as a fuel source for Lymphocytes. research
Glutamine serves as a fuel source for Macrophages. research
Glutamine enhances the ability of Monocytes to function as Phagocytes. research
Glutamine enhances the ability of Neutrophils to destroy Antigens and to destroy Detrimental Bacteria. research
Glutamine stimulates the growth of Phagocytes. research

Metabolism
Glutamine reduces the craving (Appetite) for Carbohydrates.
Glutamine reduces elevated Blood Sugar (by up to 50%).
Glutamine improves the health of people who regularly engage in strenuous Exercise: research
 
-Glutamine counteracts the Acidosis (Lactic Acidosis resulting from Lactic Acid production) that often occurs as a result of strenuous Exercise.
-Glutamine can prevent the breakdown of Proteins within the Muscles (i.e. it can prevent catabolism and Muscle loss) during and after intensive Exercise.
-When excessive quantities of Lactic Acid are produced as a result of strenuous Exercise (resulting in Lactic Acidosis), Glutamine is catabolized from the Muscles and transferred to the bloodstream where it is utilized in the detoxification of Lactic Acid - supplemental Glutamine therefore "spares" the body's existing Glutamine reserves in the Muscles.
-Intensive Exercise causes the depletion of Glutamine from the Muscles, Liver and Blood Plasma.
-Glutamine counteracts the suppression of the Immune System that occurs in people who undertake Endurance Exercise. research
Glutamine alleviates Fatigue.
Glutamine alleviates Hypoglycemia.
Glutamine protects the Liver from Alcohol-induced toxicity.
Glutamine functions as a Nitrogen shuttle - it “picks up and drops off” Nitrogen around the body. research
Glutamine reduces body weight in persons afflicted with Obesity (by approximately 10%). research
Glutamine reduces cravings for Simple Sugars.

Musculoskeletal System
Glutamine stimulates the synthesis of endogenous Proteins within the Muscles, thereby facilitating Muscle Growth (i.e. it is anabolic). research
Glutamine concentrates in the Muscles (it comprises 10.4 mg per 100 grams of total Muscle weight and comprises 50% of the total free Amino Acid content of Muscles). research
Glutamine prevents Muscular Atrophy (wasting of the tissues of the Muscles).

Nervous System
Glutamine alleviates Aggressiveness.
Glutamine improves Alertness.
Glutamine is helpful in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.
Glutamine is a valuable adjunct to the treatment of Autism.
Glutamine converts to Glutamic Acid within the Brain in order to provide Energy to the Brain.
Glutamine is the most abundant Amino Acid present in the Cerebrospinal Fluid. research
Glutamine improves Concentration.
Glutamine (250 - 1,000 mg per day) improves Mood in Depression patients. research
Glutamine increases Intelligence. research
Glutamine increases Learning ability.
Glutamine improves Memory.
Glutamine alleviates Mental Retardation - supplemental Glutamine has increased the IQ of intellectually impaired children. research
Glutamine improves Mood. research
Glutamine reduces the sensation of Pain. research
Supplemental Glutamine improves the recovery from Stroke. research

Respiratory System
Glutamine indirectly accelerates the recovery from severe Pneumonia. research

Sexual System - Male
Glutamine alleviates Male Impotence.

Skin
The concentration of Glutamine is 58% lower in Burns patients than in non-burned humans.
Glutamine facilitates the excretion of waste products from the Skin.
Glutamine accelerates the healing of Wounds.

Surgery
Glutamine is one of the most important nutrients of all to supply to people before and after they have undergone Surgery.

Glutamine Enhances the Function of these Substances

Amino Acids
Glutamine supplementation increases the production of Arginine (in the Kidneys). research
Glutamine (which can pass through the Blood-Brain Barrier) converts within the Brain to Glutamic Acid (which cannot pass through the Blood-Brain Barrier) which then combines with Ammonia to reform back into Glutamine.
Glutamine is integral to the production of Glutathione within the body (Glutamic Acid is extracted from Glutamine's chemical structure within the Liver for incorporation into the Glutathione molecule). research
Proline can be manufactured within the body from Glutamine.
Glutamine enhances the function of Tryptophan.

Carbohydrates
Glutamine is a precursor for the endogenous production of Glucosamine.
Glutamine is required for the formation of Glycogen. research

Hormones
Glutamine supplementation (of at least 2,000 mg per day) increases plasma Human Growth Hormone (hGH) levels by up to 400%. research
Glutamine stimulates the production of Insulin.

Minerals
Glutamine is one of the preferred Amino Acids for chelation with Copper.

Neurotransmitters
Glutamine is a precursor for the formation of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA).

Nucleic Acids
Glutamine supplies the required Nitrogen atom for the manufacture of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA).

Pharmaceutical Drugs
Glutamine improves the ability of Methotrexate to inhibit the growth of Cancer Cells and reduces its toxicity (thereby allowing larger dosages of Methotrexate to be utilized in the treatment of Cancer. research

Proteins
Glutamine is a component of Gliadin (a Prolamine) which in turn is a component of Gluten.
Glutamine is an essential component of all Prolamines.

Glutamine Counteracts the Toxic Effects of these Substances

Amino Acid By-products
Glutamine facilitates the elimination of Ammonia from the body:
 
-Glutamine converts within the Brain to Glutamic Acid which then combines with Ammonia to reform back into Glutamine.

Pharmaceutical Drugs
Glutamine counteracts Paracetamol poisoning (by preserving Glutathione levels in the Liver of persons affected by Paracetamol poisoning). research
Glutamine counteracts the ability of Prednisone to suppress the Immune System and reduces the likelihood of Prednisone-induced increases in susceptibility to Bacterial and Viral Diseases. research

Recreational Drugs
Glutamine counteracts some of the toxic effects of excessive consumption of Alcohol (ethanol): research
 
-Glutamine protects the Liver from Alcohol-induced damage.
-Glutamine reduces the craving for Alcohol in persons afflicted with Alcoholism when used in conjunction with Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic Acid form) - the main drawback to this approach is that the equivalent human dose of Glutamine to that used in animals would be a massive 35,000 mg (35 grams) per day. research

These Substances Enhance the Function of Glutamine

Amino Acids
Alpha-Ketoglutarate (AKG) facilitates the endogenous production of Glutamine (it provides the Carbon skeleton for a portion of Glutamine synthesis).
Glutamine is converted to Glutamic Acid - which otherwise cannot pass through the Blood-Brain Barrier - within the Brain (Glutamic Acid is converted to Glutamine when an additional Nitrogen atom is added to Glutamic Acid and Glutamine is converted to Glutamic Acid when the additional Nitrogen atom is removed from Glutamine).
Glutamine can be manufactured endogenously (within the body) from Isoleucine.
Endogenous Enzymes in Skeletal Muscles and the Liver convert supplemental Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate (OKG) to Glutamine. research
Glutamine can be manufactured endogenously (within the body) from Valine.

Enzymes
Glutaminase catalyses the breakdown of Glutamine into Ammonia and Glutamic Acid.

Hormones
Melatonin (10 mg per day) enhances the ability of Glutamine to stimulate the release of Human Growth Hormone (hGH) from the Pituitary Gland. research

Minerals
Manganese is required for the synthesis of Glutamine.

Dietary Sources of Glutamine

Fruits: Papaya   
Vegetables: Celery Parsley 
  Spinach Cabbage 
  Dandelion Greens Brussels Sprouts 
  Lettuce Carrots 

These Substances Interfere with Glutamine

Amino Acids
Aspartic Acid inhibits the absorption of Glutamine.

Hormones
Cortisol decreases the body’s Glutamine levels.

Microorganisms
Candida albicans yeast destroys Glutamine.

These Ailments Interfere with Glutamine

Nervous System
Stress increases the body’s requirement for Glutamine as excessive Stress causes severe depletion of Glutamine. research

Other Factors that Interfere with Glutamine

Exercise
Exercise causes depletion of the body’s Glutamine reserves (a single bout of non-intensive Exercise can cause a 45% reduction in plasma Glutamine compared to pre-Exercise plasma Glutamine levels): research
 
-Endurance Exercise causes severe depletion of the body’s Glutamine reserves (a single bout of Endurance Exercise can cause a 50% reduction in plasma Glutamine for up to six days compared to pre-Exercise plasma Glutamine levels). research

Dosage Recommendations

Therapeutic Dosages
The usual therapeutic dosage of Glutamine for the treatment of Alcoholism varies from 2,000 to 35,000 mg per day. This dosage may decrease the craving for Alcohol in Alcoholics. The wide range of dosages is due to some clinical studies showing effects with as little as 2,000 mg of Glutamine, while others have shown no effect until at least 35,000 mg (35 grams) of Glutamine is used per day.
The usual therapeutic dosage of Glutamine for persons undergoing Chemotherapy is 18,000 mg per day. Clinical trials involving the use of Glutamine in people underoing Chemotherapy have involved the use of 3 x 6,000 mg doses (= 18,000 mg per day) for at least three days prior to the commencement of Chemotherapy.
The usual therapeutic dosage of Glutamine for the treatment of Depression is 2,000 mg per day.
The usual therapeutic dosage of Glutamine persons who Exercise is 2,000 mg per day. This dosage increases plasma Glutamine levels by 19% in people who undertake intensive Exercise, thereby restoring Glutamine levels to normal ranges.
The usual therapeutic dosage of Glutamine for persons who undertake Endurance Exercise is 5,000 - 10,000 mg per day. This is the dosage required to prevent suppression of the Immune System in people who participate in Endurance Exercise.
The usual therapeutic dosage of Glutamine for increasing Human Growth Hormone (hGH) levels is 2,000 mg per day. Some studies have shown that this dosage increases hGH levels by up to 400%.

Safe Dosage
Supplemental Glutamine has been certified to be safe at daily supplementation of up to 70,000 mg per day (70 grams per day).

Bioavailability

Orally-administered Glutamine supplements effectively increase serum Glutamine levels (when a dose of 5 grams of Glutamine is ingested, serum Glutamine levels increase by approximately 50% within 30 minutes).

Commercial Availability of Glutamine Supplements

“Singular” Oral Glutamine Products
Glutamine supplements are available from health food stores and mail order supplement companies (worldwide) in the form of:
 
-loose Glutamine powder
-500 - 750 mg capsules
-400 - 1,000 mg tablets

Chemical Data

Glutamine is a unique Amino Acid in that it contains 2 Nitrogen molecules - this feature gives Glutamine all of its unique health benefits.

Chemical Names
L(+)-Glutamic acid-5-amide
2-aminoglutaramic acid

Molecular Formula
C5H10N2O3


Related Topics

Amino Acids
Glutamic Acid
Glutaminase
Glutathione


Return Catabolism

Catabolism is the process of reusing or excreting substances within cells that are worn out or are no longer required by the body. It involves them being broken down (decomposed) into smaller molecules. Catabolism involves the release of Energy from those decomposed substances and (like all of the processes involved in Metabolism) is catalyzed by Enzymes.


Return Anabolism

Anabolism is the process of building new molecules to replace the structures within cells that must periodically be replaced. It involves the utilization of Energy to achieve Growth and repair.